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What is high blood pressure?

Blood pressure refers to:

The pressure on the walls of blood vessels when the heart pumps blood from the heart to all parts of the body.
When the heart contracts, the pressure caused by blood on the walls of the blood vessels is called systolic pressure (also known as upper pressure)
When the ventricles relax, the pressure caused by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels is called diastolic pressure (also called depression).

Ideally, the upper pressure is less than 120mmHg and the lower pressure is less than 80mmHg.

However, if the blood flow resistance in the blood vessels increases, the heart must increase its strength to pump blood out of the heart, putting pressure on the blood vessel walls and forming high blood pressure. Long-term high blood pressure will increase the load on the heart and cause heart failure.

Generally speaking, if the upper pressure is greater than or equal to 140mmHg, and the lower pressure is equal to or greater than 90mmHg, it is considered high blood pressure.

Causes of hypertension

Most patients have no obvious symptoms. Only some people experience headaches, dizziness, shortness of breath, and vision problems. Many people are diagnosed after physical examinations.

Hypertension is divided into primary and secondary. Most patients are primary with unknown etiology. It may be the combined influence of genetic and environmental factors. Such as genes, innate constitution, fluid distribution, kidney processing of water and salt, vascular tension, nerves, endocrine, etc.; common environmental factors include excessive salt intake, obesity, alcohol, lack of exercise, stress, etc. Essential hypertension cannot be cured theoretically. It can be controlled by correcting living habits and adding medication when necessary.

Secondary hypertension accounts for about 5% – 10%. Mostly caused by drugs (oral contraceptives, steroids), nephropathy (renal failure, polycystic kidney disease, hydronephrosis, renal artery stenosis), endocrine diseases (adrenal tumors, hyperthyroidism) or congenital arterial congestion, if the cause can be cured , There is a chance to heal.

Hypertension complications

Hypertension can induce other diseases because it accelerates the development of atherosclerosis in blood vessels, blocks blood circulation, causes ischemia of local organs, and impairs function. The complications are generally divided into hypertension and atherosclerosis. The former is directly caused by the increase in blood pressure, which can be prevented by lowering blood pressure; the latter is mixed with other factors (such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes), and high blood pressure is the most important cause, but only lowering blood pressure cannot completely prevent atherosclerosis.

Hypertensive vascular complications-including hemorrhagic stroke (blood vessel), congestive heart failure, nephrosclerosis, aortic dissection, etc.

Atherosclerotic complications-including coronary heart disease, sudden death, arrhythmia, arterial thrombosis, stroke, peripheral (hands and feet) vascular diseases, etc.

People with hypertension have at least twice the risk of suffering from these serious diseases. It is recommended that after the age of 35, people with the above-mentioned high-risk factors should have their blood pressure measured regularly to monitor and prevent the occurrence of lesions as soon as possible.

Hypertension control methods

Early control of hypertension to an ideal level can prevent possible complications early.

Diet adjustment
DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) diet method, healthy diet content includes low sodium, low fat and low cholesterol, high calcium, high magnesium, high potassium and high fiber intake, etc., and at the same time with a balanced diet, quit smoking and alcohol, and Maintain an ideal weight.

Regular blood pressure measurement
Since hypertension does not necessarily have obvious symptoms, it is helpful for individuals to monitor and understand the daily blood pressure status if blood pressure levels can be measured and recorded regularly.

Moderate exercise
Appropriate exercise can improve blood vessel health, help maintain ideal blood pressure levels and control weight. Patients with hypertension should choose appropriate exercise intensity and should not engage in strenuous exercise. They should consult professionals before exercising.

Relieve stress
Learning methods to relax the body and mind and stress is also an important part of controlling high blood pressure.